TECHNICAL & GENERAL TOPIC BLOGS

AAI TO INVEST RS 15,000 CR ON AIRPORT TERMINALS IN FY19 GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Thu, February 22, 2018 09:43:03

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The Airports Authority of India (AAI) will invest Rs 15,000 crore in financial year 2018-19 to expand the existing terminal buildings and construct new ones.

AAI chairman Guruprasad Mahapatra said the authority has decided to have additional facilities at all the terminal buildings across the country.

"All our terminal buildings will have additional facilities. For financial year 2018-19, terminal building projects worth Rs 15,000 crore would be launched," he told reporters at the launch of the airport operation's control centre at Dabolim airport.

"AAI plans to build 15 new terminal buildings in FY19," he added.

Mahapatra said that the construction of new airport at Pakyong in Sikkim has been completed at a cost of Rs 650 crore, along with Tezu airport in Arunachal Pradesh.

"Both the airports will be operational soon," he said.

Elaborating on the status of new airports across the country, Mahapatra said Jharsuguda airport in western Odisha has been completed at a cost Rs 200 crore and would be inaugurated in April, the foundation stone for the Navi Mumbai airport would be laid soon, while another airport at Jewar in Greater Noida is in the planning stage.

The work on a greenfield airport at Mopa in Goa is going on, while a similar airport is being planned in Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, he said.

"We are seriously following up with West Bengal and Tamil Nadu for a second airport in Kolkata and Chennai," he said.

Mahapatra said the existing airport at Allahabad (UP) will undergo major expansion and the first phase would be ready by February 2019, when Ardh Kumbh Mela is scheduled to take place.

"The existing one is a very small airport. Allahabad is going to have Ardh Kumbh Mela in February 2019, we have taken up the challenge to do new capacity within 11 months and we are hopeful that it would be operational before the Ardh Kumbh Mela," he said.

The airport in Allahabad is being expanded at a cost of Rs 100 crore, which would be developed in two phases, he said.





NAVI MUMBAI AIRPORT: 21-YEAR-OLD-DREAM SET TO BECOME TRUE GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Wed, February 21, 2018 11:03:58

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When Prime Minister Narendra Modi lays the foundation stone for the Rs 16,700-crore Navi Mumbai airport tomorrow, it will be a 21-year-old dream for the megapolis nearing realisation.

Planned in 1997 as a secondary airport to meet the growing needs of Mumbai at an investment of Rs 3,000 crore, the project was inordinately delayed due to a myriad of factors, including political indecision, issues of environmental clearances and the funding.


With the PM laying the foundation stone tomorrow, the Navi Mumbai International Airport, being built by the state-run Cidco and the GVK Group which also runs the Mumbai international airport, is all set to take off at a humongous cost of over Rs 16,700 crore.

However, the land needed for the airport -- over 2,268 hectares of which nearly 1,160 hectares will be used for aeronautical purposes -- is yet to be fully acquired.

Unlike the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport of Mumbai which is a single-runway affair, the new airport in neighbouring Navi Mumbai will have two parallel runways, and will handle close to 80 flights an hour.

It is expected to significantly ease the load of the congested Mumbai airport, which handles over 900 flights a day (the peak was 980 flights in mid-January), and is known as the world's busiest single-runway facility, accounting for almost over 25 per cent of the entire air traffic in the country.

The City Industrial Development Corporation (Cidco), which is developing the new airport along with GVK Group, expects the first flight to take off in 2019. GVK Group will hold 74 per cent stake in the project, the rest being held by the Cidco and the Airports Authority of India.

The parallel runways will measure 4,000 metres, each with two rapid exit taxiways. The new airport will have two entrances and exits. The southern tip of the runway will be built first as it lies at the base of Ulwe Hills, expected to be cut by December.

The first phase is likely to be completed by the end of 2019, with one runway and the terminal building ready to handle up to 10 million passengers. The second phase, to be completed by 2022, will take the handling capacity to 25 million passengers.

The third phase will be completed by 2027, and at the completion of the fourth phase by 2031, the capacity will be 60 million passengers.


The Mumbai airport's capacity is 40 million, but since 2016 it has been handling many more passengers.

The pre-development work is estimated to cost Rs 3,420 crore while the total package for compensation offered to the 3,500 project-affected families is around Rs 520 crore.


The GVK Group will invest nearly Rs 4,000 crore in the first phase.

Ten villages in Navi Mumbai have been impacted by the proposed airport. Until now, Cidco has rehabilitated close to 400 of the 3,500 affected families. Each family has been offered alternative plots, monetary compensation, construction aid, rent allowances and additional amenities in the Pushpak Nagar where they will be rehabilitated.





MAHARASHTRA GOVERNMENT INKS RS 35,000-CRORE PACT WITH A PILOT TO BUILD AIRCRAFT GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Tue, February 20, 2018 10:22:38

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The dream of a commercial pilot to set up an aircraft manufacturing company is set to take wings with the Maharashtra government today signing a Rs 35,000 crore pact with him to build aircraft.

Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis was present when the MoU, which envisages Rs 35,000 investment in the project, was signed at the "Magnetic Maharashtra" global investors summit in suburban Bandra.

The MoU, between Amol Yadav and MIDC, will lead to generation of around 10,000 jobs in the project, which will be spread over 157 acre land in Palghar district.

Last year, Fadnavis had assured all help to Yadav, 42, who hails from Satara district, to start manufacturing facility for indigenous 6-seater and 19-seater aircraft.

"I have to make planes. I have demonstrated the capabilities. Fadnavis wants the first plane making factory of the country to be in Maharashtra. The 157-acre plot was identified in Palghar. The MIDC will provide us land and support facilities like roads," Yadav told PTI.


"My responsibility is to build the plane and create the factory which will be producing more, and also to look after factories to be set up henceforth. This will be an aerospace hub to make planes," he said.

Maharashtra government will help in getting the required funds, Yadav said. "The government expects Rs 35,000 crore investment for not my company alone, but also for the ancillaries which will be a part of the hub," he said.

"Rs 35,000 crore is the total amount of funds which will be required to achieve the broader targets. The target is to create employment for 10,000 people. The investment figure is included in the MoU agreement but it will not be coming from me alone," he said.

"In the first phase, I am required to build a prototype 19-seater plane and three more similar planes for production. The investment required for this will be Rs 200 crore, which is the immediate requirement and will be spent in the next six months," he said

“Our target, from the Rs 35,000 crore investments, is very simple. We want to make 600 19-seater planes in the next 2-3 years and then take it to 1,300 planes after that. We are planning for 1300 19-seater planes at present," he said.

"We have already identified many potential investors," Yadav said. The government will also help, he added.

"Pratt & Whitney is supplying me the engines at present. The engine supplied to me is 30 years old and tested one," he said, adding he "fully owns" the company.

Yadav, senior commander with Jet Airways, has promoted Thrust Aircraft Private Limited company for manufacturing aircraft.

His six-seater aircraft was the centre of attraction during the Make In India exhibition held in Mumbai in 2016.

The aircraft, that was assembled on the terrace of a Charkop building, got the certificate of registration from the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) last year.





VIJAY RUPANI INAUGURATES AIR ODISHA'S FIRST FLIGHT UNDER UDAN SCHEME GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Mon, February 19, 2018 09:42:57

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Air Odisha today launched its maiden services under the regional connectivity scheme Udan with Gujarat Chief Minister Vijay Rupani inaugurating the first flight to Mundra from here.

The Bhubaneswar-based carrier, mandated to fly on 50 regional routes, had received its scheduled commuter operator (SCO) permit from the aviation regulator DGCA last Tuesday.

The permit allows a carrier to operate as a scheduled commuter airline.

Significantly, Air Odisha, promoted by the Radhakant Pani family of Odisha, has offloaded 60 per cent stake to the Ahmedabad-based firms GSEC Aviation and Monarch Network.

Besides Mundra, the carrier also rolled out services on the Ahmedabad-Jamnagar route and plans to launch flights to Diu from Ahmedabad as well in the first phase of rollout, Air Deccan founder G R Gopinath said.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has agreed to inaugurate the Diu flight on February 25, he said.

GSEC Aviation and Monarch Networth have made "strategic investment" in both Air Deccan and Air Odisha.

"Udan aims to provide air facility to the common man through regional connectivity. Till now, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Surat were all connected to Mumbai, but with this service, these cities will be connected to Ahmedabad," Rupani told reporters on the sidelines of the event.

Air Odisha has deployed a 19-seater Beechcraft 1900D aircraft for carrying out these services.

The air operator will also provide connectivity from Ahmedabad to Bhavnagar and onward to Surat in the coming days.

Speaking at the event, Gopinath said it was a "dream come true" moment for him to see the venture taking off.

Gopinath, the pioneer of low- cost flying in India, said his air charter company had sought permission to fly on this route in 2013 but the then UPA government did not give him the go-ahead due to political reasons.

He said Air Deccan and Air Odisha have formed a joint venture with GSEC Aviation and Monarch Networth Capital to grow the network and infrastructure together.

Gopinath, however, refused to divulge the details of investment made by the two companies or the quantum of the stake sold by the two carriers.

The JV was necessitated to get a scale as the number of the aircraft by one company was not sufficient for that scale, he said.

Gopinath, however, said both Air Odisha and Air Deccan will continue to fly as different airlines.

Air Deccan has bagged 34 routes to operate under `Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN), the Centre's regional connectivity scheme (RCS).


Today other carriers, including state-run Air India, operate on not more than 35-40 routes but Air Deccan and Air Odisha together plan to fly to 62 airports with a combined fleet of 13 aircraft over the next 4-5 months, he said.

Gopinath said Air Deccan plans to launch services from Kolkata to Jamshedpur, Coochbihar, Rourkela, Durgapur and Bagdogra on February 28 followed by flights to Shillong, Dimapur, Aizawal and Silchar from Kolkata.

It plans to connect towns like Bhubaneshwar, Utkela, Raipur, Ranchi, Gwalior, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhavnagar, Selam and Puducherry, among others.



KEMPE GOWDA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT BRACES FOR BIGGER GROWTH GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Mon, February 12, 2018 11:05:01

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Ten years ago, when information technology stalwarts were protesting shifting of the entire airport from HAL to Devanahalli, few had imagined a stellar growth in passenger volumes in such a short span of time. The way traffic is growing has made airport and government authorities plan a third runway to handle a gargantuan traffic in the years to come.

The international airport, named after the architect of the city of Bengaluru Kempe Gowda, is serving about 25 million passengers a year and the numbers are expected to grow substantially in the coming year.

Growth means the need for new routes and addition of aircraft to the existing base. Domestic passenger traffic at the Bengaluru airport is seeing a surge which has vastly surpassed the international traffic, creating a huge opportunity to increase global connectivity.

"At Bangalore International Airport (BIAL), we are working towards achieving this growth vision through a multipronged approach. Introduction of digitally advanced, innovative services and products at the BLR Airport ensures that airline partners have the advantage of future forward technologies, creating a seamless operating environment," a BIAL spokesperson says.

High growth, however, requires physical infrastructure to manage the rising traffic. "Until the second terminal at the airport is operational, BIAL will introduce several new digital initiatives that will ease and transform the customer's airport experience. This, in addition to the existing digital innovation will help streamline and ease passenger movement at the terminal," the spokesperson adds.

Meanwhile, the export of fruits and flowers from the airport has been growing pretty impressively. The airport has recorded a growth of about 20% for the last two years. The airport exported 303 tonnes of roses in February last year, and 562,107 kgs of mangoes in April and May.

The airport, for instance, exports about one tonne of fresh pomegranates every day. Karnataka is the one of the major producers of pomegranates after Maharashtra, a fruit that finds heavy demand in the Middle East and European countries.

Bangalore International Airport (BIAL) vice-president (business development) Raj Andrade and Menzies Aviation Bobba (Bangalore) CEO K Venkat Reddy recently said mixed vegetables, fruits, cambodge extract are top perishables exported to Qatar, Singapore and UAE, among the others.

Besides Menzies Aviation, BIAL has also partnered with Air India SATS Airport Services to drive cargo sales. Bangalore airport has a 5,70,000 metric tonnes of cargo handling capacity, and has done 2,80,324 metric tonnes from January to October. With 290 daily scheduled flights and 10 freighters operating over 30 weekly scheduled movements, the cargo volumes are growing at over 8% per annum, Andrade said.

"2017 has been a phenomenal year for us. We surpassed forecasted numbers and continue on a positive growth trajectory... This is a reflection of the status of Bangalore as one of the fastest growing cities in India, and its growing economic might", said Hari Marar, MD , BIAL. The state government, meanwhile, has planned a modern business park and an international convention centre (ICC) at the 407-acre plot of land near the international airport in Bengaluru .

"What we plan to build near the airport is a signature business park," said RV Deshpande, minister for infrastructure development. "We will be inviting technical bids very soon, and if all goes well, we should be able to lay the foundation stone in February," he added. The business park will take about 360 acres of land, and the rest will go for the convention centre, the minister said.





BENGALURU AIRPORT REPORTS 25 MILLION PASSENGER TRAFFIC IN 2017, REMAINS INDIA’S THIRD BUSIEST AIRPORT GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Wed, January 31, 2018 10:27:21

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The Kempegowda international airport in Bengaluru on Tuesday announced a passenger traffic of 25 million in calendar 2017. This represents a growth of 13% over calendar 2016.

Bengaluru retained its status as busiest airport in South India, and India's third busiest airport after New Delhi and Mumbai.

The air traffic movements (ATMs) in Jan-Dec 2017 grew by 4.3%. Forty-three scheduled airlines now connect 62 destinations nationally and globally. The airport, operated by Fairfax Group-controlled Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL), witnessed the highest-ever passenger movement on Dec 23 with 87,815 travellers using the airport on a single day. The same day also recorded 603 air traffic movements (ATMs) - the highest ever for the airport. In 2017, the airport also handled 339,461 metric tonnes of cargo.

"2017 has been a phenomenal year for us. We surpassed forecasted numbers and continue on a positive growth trajectory. BLR Airport was rated as the fastest growing airport, globally, by FlightGlobal. This is a reflection of the status of Bangalore as one of the fastest growing cities in India, and its growing economic might", said Hari Marar, Managing Director & CEO at BIAL.

According to a BIAL press release, statistics point to an expanding market. The number of domestic and international passengers grew, in calendar 2017, by 14.5% (vs 21.31 million in 2016) and 4.7% (vs 3.73 million in 2016), respectively. The airport averaged 505 ATMs per day in 2017, with a total of 184,348 ATMs during 2017 against 176,797 ATMs registered in 2016.

In 2017, the Bengaluru airport added four new routes: two in the domestic sector including Silchar and Udaipur and two in the international sector including Amsterdam and Bahrain. Two new airlines began operations in 2017: DHL Aviation International Cargo and Malindo Air. Last year the airport stepped up its regional connectivity with new connections to Thiruvananthapuram, Mangaluru, Coimbatore, Madurai, Hubli, Rajamundry, Agatti Island and Belegavi.







AAI AWARDS 325 ROUTES TO 15 OPERATORS; 56 NEW AIRPORTS, HELIPADS TO BE CONNECTED UNDER UDAN 2GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Tue, January 30, 2018 10:07:41

AAI awards 325 routes to 15 operators; 56 new airports, helipads to be connected under UDAN 2

In June 2016, the Narendra Modi government launched the National Civil Aviation Policy, the first comprehensive policy on civil aviation, with great fanfare. It not only aimed to make regional air connectivity a reality but also make flying affordable for the masses along the way - think airfare capped at Rs 2,500 per seat per hour. The Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS), also known as UDAN (Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik), thus took off in 2017 with five airline operators being awarded 128 routes in the first round of bidding.

And yesterday, the government announced results of second round of bidding under the scheme: The Airports Authority of India (AAI), the implementing agency, has awarded 325 routes to 15 airlines and helicopter operators. In the bargain, 25 new airports and 31 new helipads will now be connected to the existing network. "This is the first time that helicopter [services] are coming under Udan," said Civil Aviation Minister Ashok Gajapati Raju.

The emphasis this time round was on enhancing air connectivity to hilly and remote areas with poor roads and possibly zero train network. A whopping 40% of the total routes in UDAN 2 were awarded to the newly-created category of 'priority areas' that include Jammu and Kashmir, the hill states and the Northeast apart from Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands. With this, the government aims to connect around 41 airports and helipads in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Of the 19 states that stand to benefit from UDAN-II, Uttarakhand leads the pack with 15 airports and helipads coming under the scheme. Sikkim, likewise, has much to cheer with flights set to connect Pakyong to Delhi, Guwahati and Kolkata. Then there is Kargil airport, which so far was used only for defence-related flights. The timeline set for 75% of the new routes is reportedly six months-the remaining will take longer.

"There has been an astounding increase in regional aviation and an explosion of connectivity in previously unserved areas since the commencement of the UDAN programme one-and-a-half years ago," said Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha at a programme awarding the winning bids. According to Raju, UDAN 1 and 2 have added around 80 airports-the country previously had 75 airports connected by scheduled airlines. The number of passengers flown may be rather underwhelming-UDAN has only added 3-4% to the total passenger trips in the country-but it's a step in the right direction.

On the reason for the disappointing numbers is that Air Odisha Aviation and Air Deccan, which had bagged the lion's share of routes in the first round of bidding, are reportedly yet to start flying on a majority of them. In UDAN 2, of the 90 proposals awarded to 13 airline companies for fixed-wing aircraft operations, the maximum have been bagged by Interglobe Aviation, the parent company of IndiGo Airlines, followed by SpiceJet. Among the major aviation players, Jet Airways, too, bid for routes. Meanwhile, Pawan Hans has scored maximum in the helicopter proposals category. Let's hope they take to the skies sooner.

The scheme is being part-funded by AAI, which has given Rs 200 crore in the current fiscal and is likely to contribute Rs 500 crore in the next fiscal. This contribution will come from the dividend that AAI pays to the government annually, in addition to the levy of Rs 5,000 per flight being imposed on non-RCS operations.

The second round of RCS will need Viability Gap Funding (VGF)-government subsidy basically--of Rs 620 crore, while the first round required Rs 213 crore. According to Raju, it was encouraging to see that many participants in UDAN 2-like SpiceJet and IndiGo-sought no subsidy. "This tells us that the scheme is getting the desired result and that it will not require any subsidy after some time and is moving towards self-sustainability," he added.



INDIA, CHINA LEADING DOMESTIC PASSENGER GROWTH: IATA GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Wed, January 17, 2018 09:55:35

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NEW DELHI: India's domestic traffic rise is leading the world with the growth clocking 16.4% in November, marking the 39th consecutive month of double-digit domestic growth for the market, says International Air Transport Association (IATA).

"All markets showed growth, led again by India and China. Domestic capacity climbed 5.9%, and load factor improved 1.4 percentage points to 83.6%," IATA said in a release.

The release added that large markets in India, China and Japan mean that domestic travel accounts for 45% of the region's operations. "It is less important for Europe and most of Africa where domestic travel represents just 11% and 14% of operations, respectively. And it is negligible for Middle Eastern carriers for whom domestic travel represents just 4% of operations," it said.

According to IATA, total revenue passenger kilometers (RPKs) in November last year rose 8.0% compared to November 2016, the fastest growth rate in five months and up from a 7.3% year-over-year rise in October. Capacity (available seat kilometers or ASKs) increased by 6.3%, and load factor rose 1.2 percentage points to 80.2%.

"The airline industry is in a good place entering 2018. November's strong demand gives the industry momentum. The number of unique city-pair connections now tops 20,000. Passengers not only have more travel choices than ever, the cost of travel in real terms has never been cheaper. Along with delivering great value to consumers, airlines are rewarding their shareholders with normal levels of profitability. We expect 2018 to be the fourth year in a row where the industry's return on invested capital will exceed the cost of capital. In sum, we begin the New Year with confidence," Alexandre de Juniac, IATA's Director General and CEO was quoted in the release.

"Challenges, however, remain. Security threats continue. Infrastructure issues persist. Fees and charges are a growing part of the cost base. And in many cases airports and air traffic management struggle to keep pace with demand and technology advancements. These and other challenges can only be addressed in partnership with governments. And doing so requires governments to recognize the enormous value that aviation—the business of freedom—provides to their economies and the world," added de Juniac.



MUMBAI-DELHI WORLD’S 3RD-BUSIEST AIR ROUTE GENERAL TOPICS

Posted by C C ASHOKA Thu, January 11, 2018 09:50:52

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MUMBAI: With 130 flights daily between India's political capital and the commercial capital, Mumbai-New Delhi was the third-busiest domestic air route in the world in 2017.

A total of 47,462 scheduled flights were operated between the two airports in 2017, next only to South Korea's Seoul Gimpo-Jeju route (64,991 flights) and Australia's Melbourne-Sydney (54,519), according to data released by the United Kingdom's OAG Aviation Worldwide, an air travel intelligence firm.

The ranking is based on the number of total flights operated between two domestic airports and not two cities. Unlike megacities such as New York and London, Mumbai and Delhi have only one major airport each, so all their air traffic is routed from these two airports.

While Bengaluru-Delhi was the 11th-busiest route in the world with 29,427 flights between two airports last year, Bengaluru-Mumbai was 16th, with 23,857 flights.

In fact, four out of the top five busiest air routes (both international and domestic together) in the world are in the Asia-Pacific region, with Brazil's Rio De Janeiro-Sao Paulo (5) being the only outsider.

Among international routes also, all the top five routes were within Asia and only two non-Asian routes— New York La Guardia-Toronto (6) and Dublin-London Heathrow (9) — in the top 10. Hong Kong-Taipei was the busiest international route in the world last yearIf both domestic and international routes are listed together, then Hong Kong-Taipei would be the 11th busiest route in the world.

When it comes to punctuality on the 20 busiest domestic routes, Japan emerges on the top with Tokyo Haneda-Osaka route (17th busiest, 21,900 flights) seeing 90.40 % of flights departing and landing within 15 minutes of their scheduled time. Jeju-Seoul had an average on-time performance (OTP) of 74.06 %.

In comparison, the Mumbai-Delhi route recorded an OTP of 59.14% — among the worst of 20 busiest air routes. According to OAG, a flight is considered to be on time if it arrives/departs within 14 minutes and 59 seconds of its scheduled time.

A senior A320 commander, requesting anonymity, said: "If the other airports that are as busy or busier than Mumbai and Delhi can manage better punctuality, why can't we?''



MATERIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYMECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Posted by saurabh Mon, January 08, 2018 20:17:33

CHAPTER 1:- ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CRYSTAL:-
CHAPTER 2:- CRYSTAL IMPERFECTION:-
CHAPTER 3:- PLASTIC DEFORMATION:-
CHAPTER 4:- SOLIDIFICATION OF PURE METALS:-
CHAPTER 5:- SOLIDIFICATION OF ALLOYS:-
CHAPTER 6:- GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF PHASE TRANSFORMATION:-
CHAPTER 7:- BINARY ISOMORPHOUS ALLOY SYSTEM:-
CHAPTER 8:- HUME-ROTHERY RULE:-
CHAPTER 9:- IRON CARBON EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM:-
CHAPTER 10:- TTT (TIME TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATION) DIAGRAM:-

CHAPTER 11:- ENGINEERING PROPERTIES AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS:-
CHAPTER 12:- OVERHEATING AND ITS CAUSE:-
CHAPTER 13:- TEMPER EMBRITTLEMENT:-
CHAPTER 14:- HEAT TREATMENT INPLAIN CARBON STEEL:-
CHAPTER 15:- HEAT TREATMENT OF CAST-IRON:-
CHAPTER 16:- HEAT TREATMENT OF NONFERROUS:-
CHAPTER 17:- CHEMICAL HEAT TREATMENT OF CARBURIZING:-
CHAPTER 18:- CHEMICAL HEAT TREATMENT OF NITRIDING AND CARBO-NITRIDING:-

CHAPTER 19:- CHEMICAL HEAT TREATMENT OF CYANIDING:-

CHAPTER 20:- EFFECT AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALLOYING ELEMENT IN STEELS:-
CHAPTER 21:- STEEL STRUCTURE:-
CHAPTER 22:- CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL:-
CHAPTER 23:- BIS STANDARD:-
CHAPTER 24:- FIBRES REINFORCEMENT PLASTIC COMPOSITES:-
CHAPTER 25:- PLASTIC PROCESSING:-