TECHNICAL & GENERAL TOPIC BLOGS

TECHNICAL & GENERAL TOPIC BLOGS

ABOUT

School of Aeronautics (Neemrana) provides platform and environment for open discussions and interactions between the faculty and students and is designed to ignite and serve the urge to explore and learn beyond boundaries.


This would enable the students to discover, nurture and expand their individual talents, skills and interests so that they emerge as leaders in path breakers wherever they go.

This blog has been created with a view where staff and students can share their latest updates regarding various Technical & General Subjects / Topics, category wise

Low Power Techniques in VLSI

PHYSICSPosted by SANJAY SHARMA Mon, January 11, 2016 15:12:32
Certain class of logic circuits called adiabatic logic deals the probability of further decreasing the energy dissipated during the switching activity, and the possibility of reusing or recycling, some amount of the energy drawn from the power supply. To undertake this goal, the circuit topology and the operation principles should have to be modified, sometimes significantly. The amount of energy recycling achievable using adiabatic techniques is also determined by the fabrication technology, the voltage swing and switching speed.

List of adiabatic logic families in approximate chronological order

1. Recovered energy logic (REL)

2. Charge recovery logic (CRL)

3. Split level charge recovery logic (SCRL)

4. Adiabatic dynamic logic (ADL)

5. Clocked adiabatic logic (CAL)

6. Improved clocked adiabatic logic (ICAL)

7. Efficient charge recovery logic (ECRL)

8. 2N-2N2P adiabatic logic

9. Positive feedback adiabatic logic (PFAL)

10. Charge recycling differential logic (CRDL)

11. Half rail differential logic (HRDL)

12. Pass transistor adiabatic logic (PAL)

13. Quasi static energy recovery logic (QSERL)

14. NMOS energy recovery logic (NERL)

15. Bootstrapped charge recovery logic (BCRL)

16. High efficient energy recovery logic (HERL)


Out of these, there are four families such as ECRL, 2N-2N2P, CAL and ICAL that gives a clarification for the goodness of such circuts in terms of Energy Saving Factors, Static Power Dissipation and Delay: (Under 180 nm Technogy)

Adiabatic type

ESF

CAL with ICAL

1.075

CAL with 2N-2N2P

1.071

ECRL with CAL

2.570

2N-2N2P with ICAL

1.008

Adiabatic Types

Static power Dissipation

CAL

49.08 pW

ICAL

2.4 µW

2N-2N2P

32.2 pW

ECRL

33.0 µW

Voltage (V)

CAL XOR (ns)

ICAL XOR (ns)

2N-2N2P XOR (ns)

0.9

0.69

0.15

1.95

1.0

0.65

0.62

1.83

1.2

0.61

0.58

1.72

1.3

0.59

0.57

1.69



  • Comments(0)//blog.soaneemrana.org/#post2

Demand of Low Power in VLSI

PHYSICSPosted by SANJAY SHARMA Mon, January 11, 2016 14:55:35
In the earlier, the main concerns of very large scale integration (VLSI) designer were cost, area, reliability and performance; power consideration was generally secondary importance. In the earlier few eras ago, the electronics productiveness has been experiencing an exceptional issue in growth, thanks to the use of integrated circuits (IC) in computing, telecommunications and user electronics. We have come a long way from the single transistor years in 1958 to the current day Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) systems with more than 60 million transistors in a single chip.
Power dissipation of VLSI integrated circuits is traditionally a neglected subject. In earlier, the device packing density and operating frequency were low enough that it was not a constraint in the integrated circuits. This leads the steady growth of the operating frequency and processing capacity per ICs, resulting in increasing power dissipation. A need of low power VLSI design arises from such evaluation forces of ICs.

Another chief demand for low power integrated circuits and systems comes from the environmental concerns. Modern offices are now furnished with office automation equipment that consume large amount of power. A study by American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy estimated that office equipment account for 5% for the total US commercial energy usage in 1997 and could rise to 10% by the year 2004 if no actions are taken to prevent the trend
Ref.
1. A. P. Chandrakasn, S. Sheng, and R. W. Broad, “Low Power CMOS Digital Design,” IEEE Journal of Solid-state Circuits, Vol. 27, No. 04, pp. 473-484, April 1999.

2.J. M. RABAEY, AND M. PEDRAM, “Low Power Design Methodologies,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.



  • Comments(0)//blog.soaneemrana.org/#post1

GaAs Single electron Transistor for high frequency

PHYSICSPosted by SANJAY SHARMA Tue, November 17, 2015 22:30:52
Semiconductor based electronic devices are being scaled into nano-meters of dimension. Present electronics demands the better material which will be reliable than the previous used semiconductor materials such as silicon. Silicon has now the less capability and also not optimum in all respect. Gallium Arsenide is now emerging good choice the other semiconductor like silicon and germanium. This work presents the basic physics of the single electron transistor (SET) using GaAs semiconductor material. The coulomb effect calculations in the SET, mobility of GaAs in the SET and permittivity vs. frequencies in order of THz depicts that GaAs SET may be used in the high frequency communication devices.

  • Comments(1)//blog.soaneemrana.org/#post0