TECHNICAL & GENERAL TOPIC BLOGS

TECHNICAL & GENERAL TOPIC BLOGS

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School of Aeronautics (Neemrana) provides platform and environment for open discussions and interactions between the faculty and students and is designed to ignite and serve the urge to explore and learn beyond boundaries.


This would enable the students to discover, nurture and expand their individual talents, skills and interests so that they emerge as leaders in path breakers wherever they go.

This blog has been created with a view where staff and students can share their latest updates regarding various Technical & General Subjects / Topics, category wise

INDIA, CHINA LEADING DOMESTIC PASSENGER GROWTH: IATA

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Wed, January 17, 2018 09:55:35
Untitled-9

NEW DELHI: India's domestic traffic rise is leading the world with the growth clocking 16.4% in November, marking the 39th consecutive month of double-digit domestic growth for the market, says International Air Transport Association (IATA).

"All markets showed growth, led again by India and China. Domestic capacity climbed 5.9%, and load factor improved 1.4 percentage points to 83.6%," IATA said in a release.

The release added that large markets in India, China and Japan mean that domestic travel accounts for 45% of the region's operations. "It is less important for Europe and most of Africa where domestic travel represents just 11% and 14% of operations, respectively. And it is negligible for Middle Eastern carriers for whom domestic travel represents just 4% of operations," it said.

According to IATA, total revenue passenger kilometers (RPKs) in November last year rose 8.0% compared to November 2016, the fastest growth rate in five months and up from a 7.3% year-over-year rise in October. Capacity (available seat kilometers or ASKs) increased by 6.3%, and load factor rose 1.2 percentage points to 80.2%.

"The airline industry is in a good place entering 2018. November's strong demand gives the industry momentum. The number of unique city-pair connections now tops 20,000. Passengers not only have more travel choices than ever, the cost of travel in real terms has never been cheaper. Along with delivering great value to consumers, airlines are rewarding their shareholders with normal levels of profitability. We expect 2018 to be the fourth year in a row where the industry's return on invested capital will exceed the cost of capital. In sum, we begin the New Year with confidence," Alexandre de Juniac, IATA's Director General and CEO was quoted in the release.

"Challenges, however, remain. Security threats continue. Infrastructure issues persist. Fees and charges are a growing part of the cost base. And in many cases airports and air traffic management struggle to keep pace with demand and technology advancements. These and other challenges can only be addressed in partnership with governments. And doing so requires governments to recognize the enormous value that aviation—the business of freedom—provides to their economies and the world," added de Juniac.



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MUMBAI-DELHI WORLD’S 3RD-BUSIEST AIR ROUTE

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Thu, January 11, 2018 09:50:52
flight-agencies

MUMBAI: With 130 flights daily between India's political capital and the commercial capital, Mumbai-New Delhi was the third-busiest domestic air route in the world in 2017.

A total of 47,462 scheduled flights were operated between the two airports in 2017, next only to South Korea's Seoul Gimpo-Jeju route (64,991 flights) and Australia's Melbourne-Sydney (54,519), according to data released by the United Kingdom's OAG Aviation Worldwide, an air travel intelligence firm.

The ranking is based on the number of total flights operated between two domestic airports and not two cities. Unlike megacities such as New York and London, Mumbai and Delhi have only one major airport each, so all their air traffic is routed from these two airports.

While Bengaluru-Delhi was the 11th-busiest route in the world with 29,427 flights between two airports last year, Bengaluru-Mumbai was 16th, with 23,857 flights.

In fact, four out of the top five busiest air routes (both international and domestic together) in the world are in the Asia-Pacific region, with Brazil's Rio De Janeiro-Sao Paulo (5) being the only outsider.

Among international routes also, all the top five routes were within Asia and only two non-Asian routes— New York La Guardia-Toronto (6) and Dublin-London Heathrow (9) — in the top 10. Hong Kong-Taipei was the busiest international route in the world last yearIf both domestic and international routes are listed together, then Hong Kong-Taipei would be the 11th busiest route in the world.

When it comes to punctuality on the 20 busiest domestic routes, Japan emerges on the top with Tokyo Haneda-Osaka route (17th busiest, 21,900 flights) seeing 90.40 % of flights departing and landing within 15 minutes of their scheduled time. Jeju-Seoul had an average on-time performance (OTP) of 74.06 %.

In comparison, the Mumbai-Delhi route recorded an OTP of 59.14% — among the worst of 20 busiest air routes. According to OAG, a flight is considered to be on time if it arrives/departs within 14 minutes and 59 seconds of its scheduled time.

A senior A320 commander, requesting anonymity, said: "If the other airports that are as busy or busier than Mumbai and Delhi can manage better punctuality, why can't we?''



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MATERIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGPosted by saurabh Mon, January 08, 2018 20:17:33
CHAPTER 1:- ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CRYSTAL:-
CHAPTER 2:- CRYSTAL IMPERFECTION:-
CHAPTER 3:- PLASTIC DEFORMATION:-
CHAPTER 4:- SOLIDIFICATION OF PURE METALS:-
CHAPTER 5:- SOLIDIFICATION OF ALLOYS:-
CHAPTER 6:- GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF PHASE TRANSFORMATION:-
CHAPTER 7:- BINARY ISOMORPHOUS ALLOY SYSTEM:-
CHAPTER 8:- HUME-ROTHERY RULE:-
CHAPTER 9:- IRON CARBON EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM:-
CHAPTER 10:- TTT (TIME TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATION) DIAGRAM:-

CHAPTER 11:- ENGINEERING PROPERTIES AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS:-
CHAPTER 12:- OVERHEATING AND ITS CAUSE:-
CHAPTER 13:- TEMPER EMBRITTLEMENT:-
CHAPTER 14:- HEAT TREATMENT INPLAIN CARBON STEEL:-
CHAPTER 15:- HEAT TREATMENT OF CAST-IRON:-
CHAPTER 16:- HEAT TREATMENT OF NONFERROUS:-
CHAPTER 17:- CHEMICAL HEAT TREATMENT OF CARBURIZING:-
CHAPTER 18:- CHEMICAL HEAT TREATMENT OF NITRIDING AND CARBO-NITRIDING:-

CHAPTER 19:- CHEMICAL HEAT TREATMENT OF CYANIDING:-

CHAPTER 20:- EFFECT AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALLOYING ELEMENT IN STEELS:-
CHAPTER 21:- STEEL STRUCTURE:-
CHAPTER 22:- CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL:-
CHAPTER 23:- BIS STANDARD:-
CHAPTER 24:- FIBRES REINFORCEMENT PLASTIC COMPOSITES:-
CHAPTER 25:- PLASTIC PROCESSING:-


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INDIGO-PARTNERS-A320NEO-FAMILY

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Mon, January 08, 2018 09:53:20

AIRBUS, INDIGO PARTNERS FINALIZE ORDERS FOR 430 A320NEO FAMILY AIRCRAFT.

Airbus announced today that it had finalized agreements with Indigo Partners and its four portfolio airlines for the purchase of 430 additional A320neo Family aircraft for ultra-low-cost airlines Frontier Airlines (United States), JetSMART (Chile), Volaris (Mexico) and Wizz Air (Hungary). The signed purchase agreement follows a Memorandum of Understanding among the parties announced at the Dubai Air Show last month.

The 430-aircraft order is made up of 274 A320neos and 156 A321neos worth $49.5 billion at list prices. Airlines in the Indigo Partners family had previously placed orders for a total of 427 A320 Family aircraft.

“These customer-friendly and efficient A320neo Family aircraft form a great platform for continued growth for our family of ultra-low-cost airlines,” said Bill Franke, Managing Partner of Indigo Partners. “The Indigo Partners team looks forward to creating even more value for even more passengers around the world with these modern and efficient aircraft.”

John Leahy, Airbus’ Chief Operating Officer, Customers, added, “Bill Franke and the teams from Wizz, Volaris, JetSMART and Frontier are great partners, and the global Airbus team is very proud to continue to meet their growing needs for aircraft that provide value, reliability and comfort. The A320neo Family offers the lowest operating costs, longest range and most spacious cabin in the single-aisle aircraft market, making the ‘NEO’ a great choice for these low-cost airlines in the Americas and Europe.”The aircraft ordered today are a mix of A320neos and A321neos and will be delivered to the individual airlines as follows:

· Wizz - 72 A320neo, 74 A321neo

· Frontier - 100 A320neo, 34 A321neo

· JetSMART - 56 A320neo, 14 A321neo

· Volaris - 46 A320neo, 34 A321neo

Indigo Partners’ Franke indicated that engine selections will be made at a later date.

The A320neo Family incorporates the very latest technologies, including new generation engines and Sharklet wing-tip devices, which together will deliver 20 percent fuel savings by 2020. With more than 5,800 orders received from 98 customers since its launch in 2010, the A320neo Family has captured some 60 percent market share. Indigo Partners LLC, based in Phoenix, Arizona, is a private equity fund focused on worldwide investments in air transportation.





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INTERNATIONAL: CHINA'S WANFENG AVIATION SNAPS UP DIAMOND AIRCRAFT.

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Sat, January 06, 2018 12:02:37
Image result for diamond aircraft

“Great things in business are never done by one person, they are done by a team of people “Steve Jobs. The following new is to bring motivation and inspiration for all Aeronautical Engineers.

China’s Wanfeng Aviation has acquired Diamond Aircraft Group, the Austrian-headquartered parent company of one of Europe's largest general aviation aircraft manufacturers, Diamond Aircraft Industries, and its Canada-based sister.

The purchase, which also includes the company's Austro Engine division, comes a year after the Wanfeng Auto Holding subsidiary acquired a 60% stake in the Canadian operation, and is intended to assure the company's "continued long-term future".

Diamond was created in 1996 as a rebrand of Austria's HOAC. The motorglider developer had been acquired five years earlier by outgoing chief executive Christian Dries and his family, which set about turning the small company into a major developer of propeller-driven aircraft.

More than 15 models and derivatives have been produced by the Wiener Neustadt-headquartered airframer to date, including the two-seat DA20 Katana and four-seat DA40 piston singles; the DA42 and DA62 piston-twins and the short-lived D-JET single-engined personal jet.

Dries describes Diamond as "my life's work", adding that "the right partner" needed to be found in order to secure its longevity.

"Wanfeng and specifically [chairman] Mr Bin Chen share my vision of the future of general aviation," Dries notes. He says it is "investing for the right reasons, with a long-term strategy and the resources to see its vision through. I look forward to seeing Diamond develop further, and based on our successful year-long partnership in Diamond Canada, I am fully satisfied that I leave Diamond in very good hands."

Under Wanfeng’s ownership, work will continue on Diamond’s latest models, including the in-development Dart 450 turboprop trainer, which is scheduled to enter service this year, and the DA50 family of diesel-fuelled light aircraft.

Chen says the Diamond team "has developed a broad range of superb aircraft that have gained worldwide respect for their performance, efficiency, safety, and innovation. Based on this excellent foundation, we intend to take Diamond to a long-term leadership position in worldwide general aviation".





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Passenger Traffic Growing By Whopping 56.9 %

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Fri, January 05, 2018 01:28:56
Air passenger demand in the country grew by a whopping 56.9 per cent in 2016-17 compared to 2013-14, junior civil aviation minister Jayant Sinha informed Parliament today.

The domestic demand rose 68.2 per cent, while international traffic surged 27.2 per cent in the fiscal year ending March 2017 compared to 2013-14, Sinha said in written reply to a question in the Rajya Sabha.

"The air passenger traffic in India has witnessed a growth of 56.9 per cent (international 27.2 per cent, domestic 68.2 per cent) during the year 2016-17 as compared to 2013- 14," the minister said.

The state-controlled Airports Authority of India (AAI) manages 125 airports, including 11 international aerodromes, and provides air traffic management (ATM) services.

To another question, Sinha said that the AAI has planned to invest Rs 20,178 crore between 2016-17 and 2021-22 -- Rs 16,961.48 crore for engineering/IT works and Rs 3,216.52 crore for air navigation services (ANS) equipment.

All these stories are indicative of increased job opportunities for the students of Aeronautical Engineering & Aircraft Maintenance Engineering.

For Details Please Feel Free To Call Us On 8800228720



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JOB OPPORTUNITY FOR MALE CABIN CREW

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Wed, January 03, 2018 11:47:07

MALE CABIN CREW MEMBERS SOON ON VISTARA FLIGHTS

MUMBAI: Tata-SIA-run Vistara, which plans to spread its wings to the international skies from the next year, will soon have a mix of female and male cabin crew on its flights.

At present the airline employs female members for various jobs in the cabin. But in a policy shift, it has decided to hire male crew members too, an airline official said.
As much as 20-25 per cent of the cabin crew will be male members, the official said.

"As an equal-opportunity employer, it has always been part of our plans to have mixed cabin crew," he told PTI.

Vistara currently employs around 1,800 people to carry out its pan-India flight operations from across 21 domestic airports. Of this, around 500 are cabin crew.
Besides Vistara, budget carrier is the only other domestic carrier

Which recruits only female members for cabin crew jobs?

Vistara has started the process of hiring male cabin crew which is expected to be completed by March. "We plan to deploy them into flying from April onwards," the official said.

"It (hiring of male cabin crew) is also good timing from a service delivery perspective as we gear up to start our international operations soon," the official said.

The Delhi-headquartered airline has expanded its network to 21 destinations since its launch in January 2015, with over 660 flights a week operated by a fleet of 17 Airbus A320 aircraft, including four A320 Neos.

Vistara, whose 51 per cent stake is owned by Tata Sons and the rest by Singapore Airlines, is expected to launch its international services in the second half of next year.

The airline has already reportedly advanced the delivery of its 20th aircraft, which will qualify it for launching overseas services, to March from June 2018.

Related image



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GROWTH OF AIRCRAFT IN INDIA CREATES JOB OPPORTUNITY FOR THE BRANCH OF AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING, AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING AND CABIN CREW

GENERAL TOPICSPosted by C C ASHOKA Tue, December 26, 2017 16:37:18

“Engineering is the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man”

After analyzing the following news, the arrival of so many aircraft creates job opportunity for the branch of Aircraft Maintenance Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Cabin crews:

INDIAN CARRIERS TO INDUCT OVER 900 PLANES IN COMING YEARS

NEW DELHI: Indian airlines are likely to induct more than 900 aircraft in the coming years, with IndiGoBSE 2.16 % alone expected to add 448 planes, according to official data.


India is one of the fastest growing aviation markets in the world and most airlines have ambitious expansion plans, especially to tap the potential on regional routes.

As per data available with the civil aviation ministry, budget airlines IndiGo, SpiceJetBSE -1.17 %, GoAir and AirAsia are set to significantly expand their respective fleet sizes.

Along with other carriers, the total number of aircraft to be inducted by the domestic players would be more than 900.

Along with other carriers, the total number of aircraft to be inducted by the domestic players would be more than 900.

With an existing fleet of 150 planes, IndiGo is readying to add another 448 aircraft -- 399 A320s and 49 ATRs -- in the next seven to eight years.

Competitor SpiceJet too is in the process of expanding its current fleet of 57 aircraft. The no-frills airline would be adding 107 B737-800s and 50 Bombardier Q400s during the 2018-2023 period.

Another budget carrier GoAir, which is yet to take off on overseas routes, would induct 119 A320 planes during the period from 2018-2022. At present, its fleet size is 34.

According to the data, which was recently submitted to Parliament as part of a Lok Sabha written reply, AirAsia India would induct 60 planes in the next five years. Currently, the budget carrier has 14 aircraft.

Legacy carrier Jet Airways -- which has 107 aircraft -- would take 81 B737-8 MAX planes during 2018-2024 period. It would also add five B737-800s this fiscal ending March 2018, as per the data.


Disinvestment-bound Air India would induct three B777- 300ER and 16 A320 planes between December this year and March 2019. The national carrier has 155 aircraft at present.

Among others, full service carrier Vistara would induct five aircraft next year that would expand its current fleet of 17 planes.


TruJet, which now has four planes, would add six aircraft each year from 2018-2022. These would be ATR72-500/600, the ministry data showed.


After starting services this year, Zoom Air has placed orders for five CRJ-200 and 14 CRJ-900 planes. At present, it has two planes.


The Economic Times
26/12/2017
www.soaneemrana.org

Tel:88002287020




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COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH

COMMUNICATIVE TECHNIQUESPosted by PRIYA SHARMA Fri, August 26, 2016 15:47:24
IF
- RUDYARD KIPLING

CRITICAL ANALYSIS

The power of self- confidence within the first four lines of the poem takes on an air equivalent to that of Socrates, it his detachment from criticism:

"If you can keep your head.............................
........................................allowance for their doubting too,"


Here is the real measure of individuality and self-worth the power to reject bitterness in the face of other people's wrath. The overwhelming reference to "you" or "your" which is used seven times within these four lines really has the affect of breaking out of the poem and speaking to the reader directly.
There is a Jesus- like forgiveness within the last line of forgiving your foes, it is a higher understanding of how the world works, it grasps at the truth of human nature and makes "allowance" at the folly of others, not for their sake, but for your own.

Patience as a virtue and the correct way to speak and feel is of interest in the next four lines:

"If you can wait and .....................................
..................................... nor talk too wise"

Here patience is both taken as patience with others and with the world at large. True understanding is patience, and with dealing with others in the correct manner. The negativity of "hate" and "lying" are rejected absolutely by those who would seek to view the ways of the world from an open philosophic way of thinking. At the close of the poem the poet warns though again the error of arrogance with such self- confidence and wisdom.

It is hard to ignore the conservative message that is evident within the whole of the next stanza:

"If you can dream ..........................................
........................................up with worn-out tools"

Once again the words are noble enough, at the start the poet praises dreams nd longings but warns against becoming blinded with those wants. Interestingly, the knowledge of the God-like narrator warns against the personified "Triumph and Disaster" realising both of them as "impostors", or of little importance in the grand scheme of things.

The last two lines could be read somewhat as a conservative message with the idea of continuation and hard work in adversity , of course it is always dangerous to attach the author with the poem in such a way, though it remains positive and uplifting. This idea is also continued within the next lines:

"If you can make one heap....................................
....................................... a word about your loss;"

The attitude of never giving up and working hard certainly could be read as an element of the conservative methodology, however the determination and message of striving is there for all to adhere to regardless of political vision. It is also much more than the method of a continuation in the face of adversity, it is about he way this is done and never breathing " a word about your loss" shows the utmost element of self-dignity.
Of course, the message of the poem throughout is also holding the tension that will be finally released within the last line.

"If you can talk with crowds..............................................
.........................................., but none too much;"

Of importance in this section is the message of not becoming corrupted by the machinations of status, the individual not placing importance above anyone else, but showing ultimate humility. Obviously "Kings" is contrasted with "common" in order to cover all the strata of society in the same way as "foes" and "friends" is within the next line. The argument of treating a foe with the same humility as a friend and not allowing them to hurt you falls back to the self- confidence factor at the start of the poem.

In the last section of the poem, the tension built-up between throughout is finally released:
"If you can fill the .........................................
....................................... you'll be a Man, my son."

The last line is also the realisation of the passing down of knowledge and wisdom from father to son, and it is the first time that we as readers realise that the poem is not directly addressed to them, but to a younger figure. This gives the poem an extra element of humility, and as readers we unconsciously care for this younger child and hope we prosper under such guidance, as we do ourselves.

Overall in the poem there is much truth and wisdom within these motivational words that seems tap into a core within the reader, expanding virtue and knowledge. True words are often softly spoken and the gentleness and confidence which meet the reader in the lines of the poem come across both reverent and admirable.
The obvious humanity which Kipling breached within the whole poem stirs within the reader thoughts of a higher nature than the pettiness that surrounds daily life, it is just a shame that most people don't act upon the meaning carried wthin the Kipling's verse, for then we could truly ask "what if?".

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COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH

COMMUNICATIVE TECHNIQUESPosted by PRIYA SHARMA Fri, August 26, 2016 14:44:39
THE LUNCHEON
- W. S. MAUGHAM


The short story is divided into three parts which are the exposition, the story and the climax.
The exposition being the start where he looks back in memory 20 years in the past. The story behind the luncheon and the climax being the woman's increase in weight. There is a lot of irony in the luncheon as the woman repeatedly says she only eats one thing and it is only something small, but to the contrary she eats five dishes.
The theme of the short story is appearance versus reality. It is first shown a he thinks the woman is much older than he thought and then how she says she only eats one thing. The other example s how she said that she is a fan, but she is only after a free lunch.

W.S. Maugham was young and naive, and was living in Paris, some twenty years from the time of writing this striking short story with a twist of irony. Like any young writer, he craved for admiration. And that's what he got when he received a fan mail from a lady, lavishly praising one of his just published works. He was elated and wrote back thanking her. Then he receives a letter from the same admirer stating that she was passing through Paris and was interested to have a chat with the author. As she had a busy schedule, she suggested that the author might consider treating her with a little luncheon at Foyot's on the following thursday when she would be free.

Foyot is plush and expensive upscale restaurant in Paris where the French senators eat - meaning it was a place for the elite's and a struggling writer like Maugham can never dream of eating at such place. He had only 80 francs to sustain him through the month and a modest luncheon, he thought would not cost more than 15 francs. This deficit of 15 francs could be adjusted by refraining from taking daily coffee for two weeks.

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